4. Donnerstein and Berkowitz (1981)

The experiment: group of males divided into four subgroups

  • Group One: watched aggressive porn depicting a rape that the victim starts to enjoy

  • Group Two: watched aggressive porn depicting a rape the woman does not enjoy

  • Group Three: watched non-aggressive porn depicting consensual sex

  • Group Four: watched a neutral movie containing no sex

Before watching the film, participants were either insulted or treated neutrally by a female.


  • Group One males who were not insulted by the female felt aggressive towards her anyway.

  • Males from Groups One and Two who were insulted experienced an increase in aggression towards the female.

Conclusion: Donnerstein and Berkowitz believe "that aggressive pornography can directly influence aggression against women."

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